Histology of nonfluorosed and fluorosed bone – An in vitro study

Nazam lakhani, Vandana K. L.


Aim: The literature on effect of  fluoride on dental caries is well discussed in contrast to periodontal tissues. However a recent review  has explored an epidemiological association between fluorosis and periodontal disease and  also the influence of fluorosis on periodontal structures along with the comparison of influence of periodontal treatment on fluorosed and non fluorosed teeth. There is a scarcity in literature dealing with effect of fluorosis on biological tissues like bone. Alveolar bone which is an integral part of periodontium similar to extremities has not been studied for mechanical , histologic and mineral aspects of fluorosed bone. Hence the aim was to study the histology  of fluorosed and nonfluorosed femoral bone .

Material and methods: A total of 24 healthy  nonfluorosed and fluorosed  bone (femur )  specimens were  collected  to assess and compare the histology    of fluorosed versus non fluorosed bone using light microscope .

Results  : Cellularity of cortical and cancellous bone was found to be statistically significant in nonfluorosed group (10.72±4.10 ,  8.74±2.34 )when compared to fluorosed group (6.61 ±3.31 , 5.69±1.31) respectively .Trabacular density was same in both nonfluorosed and  fluorosed bone [ statistically non significant  , p= 0.615 ]  .However trabeculae were thick in nonfluorosed bone and short and thin in fluorosed bone.

Conclusion : The observed histologic changes would influence the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and /or outcome of periodontal treatment. Dental fluorosis may soon be designated as environmental risk factor in endemic fluorosed area.


Dental fluorosis, periodontitis, histology, femoral bone

Full Text:



O. Fejerskov, M J Larsen, A Richards, V Baelum. Dental Tissue Effects of Flouride. Adv Dent Rest 1994; 8 (1): 15-31.

K L Vandana. Fluorosis and periodontium: A report of our institutional studies. Journal of ICDRO 2014; 6 (1 ) : 7-15.

Waldbott G.L. Physiologic and hygienic aspects of absoption of inorganic fluorides. Arch Envir Health 1973; 2: 69-155.

S Amarjit, S. J. Vazirani, SS Joly, B.C. Bansal. Endemic fluorosis with particular reference to dental and systemic intoxication. Postgrad Med J 1962; 38: 150.

Fonseca AA, Cherubini K, Veeck EB, Ladeira RS, Carapeto LP. Effect of 10% formalin on radiographic optical density of bone specimens. Dentomaxillofac Radiol.2008; 37(3):137-41.

Karpagaselvi Sanjai, Jayalakshmi Kumarswamy, Archana Patil, Lokesh Papaiah, Srinivas Jayaram, and Lakshmi Krishnan. Evaluation and comparison of decalcification agents on the human teeth. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16(2): 222–227.

Brian L Foster. Histo staining - Methods for studying tooth root cementum by light microscopy. Int J Oral Sci 2012 ; 4(3): 119–128.

F. J. Mcclure, H. G. Mccann, N. C. Leone. Excessive Fluoride in Water And Bone Chemistry comparision of 2 cases .Public health reports 1958 ; 73 ( 8 ) : 741-746.

I. Zipkin, F. J. Mcclure and W. A. Lee .relation of the fluoride content of human bone to its chemical composition. Arch oral Biol 1960 ; 2 :190-195 .

Jha Mohan , Susheela A.K. Scanning electron microscopic and electron microprobe x•ray analysis of cortical bone of fluoride treated rabbits. Int J Tlss Reac 1984; 6(3): 255-261.

A K. Susheela , Mohan Jha. Biochemical characteristics of cortical and cancellous bone .IRCS Medical Science: Anatomy and Human Biology; Biochemistry; Cell and Membrane Biology; Connective Tissue, Skin and Bone; Experimental Animals; Pathology, 9, 640. 1981.

R. A. Call, A. Greenwood, W. H. Lecheminant, J. L. Shupe, H. M. Nielsen, L. E Olson, R. E. Lamborn, F. L. Mangelson, R. V. Davis. Histological and chemical studies in man on effects of fluoride .Public health reports 1965; 80 (6 ) :529-538.

CF Hildebolt. Osteoporosis and oral bone loss. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1997; 26 (1): 3-15.

R Sangeetha, K Uma, Vidya Chandavarkar. Comparison of routine decalcification methods with microwave decalcification of bone and teeth.J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2013; 17(3): 386–391.

Pak C. Y. Fluoride and osteoporosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1989 ; 191 :278-286.

Snow G.R.,Anderson C .Short term chronic fluoride administration and trabecular bone remodelling in beagles: a pilot study. Calcif Tiss Int 1986 ;38 : 217- 221.

B Magnan , C Gabbi , D Regis . Sodium Fluoride Sustained Release Bone – An Experimental Study In Vitro And In Vivo. Acta Orthopaedica Belgica 1964; 1-60.

Baud C A , Very J M , Courvoisier B . Biophysical study of bone mineral in biopsies of osteoporotic patients before and after long term treatment with fluoride. Bone 1988 ;9 : 361- 365.

Kanis J. A , Meunier P . J . Should we use fluoride to treat osteoporosis? A review . Quarterly J Med. 1984; 210 : 145- 164.

Leslie R.A., Malcolm A.S., West V.C. Storey E. Osteofluorosis in the rabbit. Calcil Tissue Res 1969; 4 : 288.

Baud CA, Bang S. Biophysical studies of the bone tissue of fluoride treated mice. J Dent Res 1973; 52: 589.

Boyed. A Scanning electron microscope studies of bone. In: Bourn, G. H., ed. " Biochemistry and physiology of bone." Academic Press, New York and London .1972; 265.

A. K. Susheela, Madhu Bhatnagar ,N. Gnanasundram , T. R. Saraswathy. Structural aberrations in fluorosed human teeth: Biochemical and scanning electron microscopic studies Current Science.1999 ; 77 (12) .

Susheela AK., Mukherjee D. Fluoride poisoning and the effect on collagen biosynthesis of osseous and non•osseous tissues of rabbit. Toxicol Eur Res 1981; 3 : 99.

Susheela A.K., Sharma Y.D. Effect of fluoride on collagen cross•link precursors of rabbit tissue. IRCS Med. Sci. Biochem.1981; 9 : 862.

Weimann J.P., Sic her H. In :Bone and bones, fundamentals of bone biology" , 2nd ed. C.V. Marby, St. Lousi, 1955; 301 - 307.

Schenk R.K., Merz WA, Reutler FW. Fluoride in osteoporosis. In :"Fluoride in medicine". Vienna. 1970 ; 153.

AK Susheela , Y D Sharma .Certain Facets Of Fluoride Action On Collagen Protein In Osseous And Non Osseous Tissues. Fluoride 1982 ; 15 (4) : 177-190.

A.K Susheela, And Mohan Jha. F Ingestion And Its Influence On Glycosaminoglycans In Cancellous And Cortical Bone – A Structural And Biochemical Study . Fluoride 1982 ; 15 (4) : 191-198.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7439/ijbar.v8i3.3858

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Most read articles by the same author(s)