Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Dichrostachys cinerea root bark, an Ivorian anti-asthmatic herbal

Irie-N’guessan G. A., Kouakou S. L., Effo K. E., Adepo A. A., Kouakou-Siransy N. G., Sadikou T.


Objectives: root bark of Dichrostachys cinerea is used in Ivorian folk for the treatment of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of this plant.

Methods: an aqueous-alcoholic extract was obtained from the root bark. Two tests i.e. rat's paw irritation with formalin and rat's paw oedema induced by carrageenan were used to appreciate the anti-inflammatory activity. The antioxidant activity was performed using ABTS (2.2-azinobis 3 ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (1.1 diphenyl 1-2-picrylhydrazyl), and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) tests.

Results: the extract, only at 1000 mg/kg b.wt, reduced significantly the licking time (22.03 1.08 s) in the second period of formalin-induced irritation test. Concerning the carrageenan-induced oedema test, oedema was weakly reduced 1, 2, and 3 hours after injection of carrageenan. Indeed, levels of inhibition were respectively 1.71 0.56 %, 1.45 0.70%, 4.5 1.91% for the extract at 10 mg/kg b.wt; 3.71 0.33%, 6.50 0.10%, 10.75 0.42% for the extract at 100 mg/kg b.wt. and 3.47 0.40%, 10.54 0.48%, 13.50 0.93 for the extract at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. The extract did not exert any antioxidant activity through both ABTS and DPPH methods, but with FRAP one, low doses showed a high antioxidant activity (86.33 1.78%) similar to that of Trolox (90.99 6.47%) used as reference.

Conclusion: the herbal lacks anti-inflammatory activity. However, it induced an antioxidant activity which could be recommended to neutralize the free radicals involved in the bronchial hyperactivity phenomena during acute asthma.


Plant;asthma;formalin-induced irritation test;FRAP

Full Text:



. Adjanohoun EJ, Ahji AMR, Ake-Assi L. Contribution aux etudes ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo [Contribution to ethnobotanical and flora studies in Togo]. Paris: ACTT 1986; 121-33.

. The World Health Organization. Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005 WHO/ EDM/TRM 2002; 74p.

. Adjanohoun EJ, Ake-Assi L. Contribution au recensement des plantes medicinales de Cote dIvoire [Contibution to census of medicinal plants of Ivory Coast] Centre national de floristique Abidjan : Editions CRESS 1979; 238.

. Irie-Nguessan G, Champy P, Kouakou-Siransy G, Koffi A, Kablan BJ, Leblais V. Tracheal relaxation of five Ivorian anti-asthmatic plants: Role of epithelium and K+ channels in the effect of the aqueous-alcoholic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea root bark. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 138(2): 432-8.

. Bousquet J, Jeffery PK, Busse WW, Johnson M, Vignola AM. Asthma from bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling. Am J Respir Critic Care Med 2000; 161: 1720-45.

. Zemmouri H, Boumendjel A, Messarah M. Effet de lextrait de feuilles dUrtica dioica sur les parametres du stress oxydants dans un modele murin dasthme experimental [Effect of Urtica dioica leaves extract on oxxidative stress parameters in a murine model of asthma]. Rev Fr Allerg 2015; 55(3): p238.

. Dubuisson D, Dennis SG. The formalin test: A quantitative study injected limb, was determined at which the rat would give of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem a vocal response. Pain 1997; 4: 16177.

. Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain 1992; 51: 5-17.

. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paws of the rats as an assay of anti-inflammatory drugs. Proceed Soc Exper Biol Med 1962; 3: 544-7.

. Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Composit Anal 2006; 19: 66975.

. Hong Y, Abbott FV. Contribution of peripheral alpha 1A-adrenoceptors to pain induced by formalin or by alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine plus noradrenaline. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 301: 418.

. Parada CA, Tambeli, CH, Cunha FQ. The major role of peripheral release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in formalin-induced nociception. Neuroscience 2001; 102(4): 937-44.

. Di Rosa M. Biological properties of carrageenan. J Pharma and Pharmacol 1972; 24: 89-102.

. Della Loggia A, Tubaro A, Dri P, Zilli C. The role of flavonoids in the anti-inflammatory activity of Chamomilla recutita. Clin and Biol Res 1968; 213: 481-6.

. Alcaraz MJ, Jimenez MJ. Flavonod and anti-inflammatory agent. Fitoterapia 1988; 59: 25-38.

. Hunskaar S, Hole K. Dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Pain 1987; 30:103-14

. Hassan HS, Sule MI, Musa AM, Musa KY, Abubakar MS, Hassan AS. Anti-inflammatory activity of crude saponin extracts from five Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2012; 9(2): 250-5

. Arula VB, Miyazakib S, Dhananjayana R. Studies on the anti- inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96: 159-63.

. Araico A, Terencio MC, Alcaraz MJ. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Me-UCH9, a dual cyclooxygenase-2/5- lipoxygenase inhibitor. Life Sciences 2007; 80: 2108-17.

. Irie-Nguessan AG. Role des ions potassium et de lepithelium dans la relaxation du muscle lisse tracheal: application la propriete antispasmodique de cinq plantes antiasthmatiques issues de la pharmacopee ivoirienne [Role of potassium ions and epithelium into tracheal smooth muscle relaxation: application to spasmolytic property of five anti-asthmatic plants from Ivorian pharmacopeia]. These de Doctorat en Sciences pharmaceutiques, Cote dIvoire 2013; p.107.

. Riboli E, Norat T. Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: S559-69.

. Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: S517-20.

. Cole GM, Lim GP, Yang F. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: omega-3 fatty acid and phenolic antioxidant interventions. Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26: S133-6.

. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Analyt Biochem 1996; 239(1): 70-6.

. Ou B, Huang D, Hampsch-Woodill M. Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. J Agr Food Chem 2002; 50(11): 3122-8.

. Yang JH, Lin HC, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms. Food Chem 2002; 77(2): 229-35.

. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm-Wiss U Technol 1995; 28(1): 25-30.

. Pinelo M, Rubilar M, Sineiro J. Extraction of antioxidant phenolics from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus) and pine sawdust (Pinus pinaster). Food Chem 2004; 85(2): 267-73.

. Louhimies S. Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Alternatives to laboratory animals: Atla 2002; 30: 217-9.


Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Pharmacological Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.