Analytical Techniques for Determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and its Combinations: A Review
Hydrochlorothiazide is chemically 6-chloro-1, 1-dioxo-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1, 2, 4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide. Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic drug used for treatment of high blood pressure(hypertension) and accumulation of fluid (edema). It works by blocking salt and fluid reabsorption from the urine in the kidneys, causing increased urine output (dieresis). Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat excessive fluid accumulation and swelling (edema) of the body caused byheart failure, cirrhosis, chronickidney failure, corticosteroid medications, and nephrotic syndrome. It can be used alone or in conjunction with otherblood pressure lowering medicationstotreat high blood pressure.This review focuses on the recent developments in analytical techniques for estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide alone or in combinations with other drugs in various biological media like human plasma and urine. This review will critically examine the (a) sample pretreatment method such as solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), (c) other methods such as spectrophotometry, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods.
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