Study of histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions
Aim: To study histopathological features and to find out the frequency of various lesions of thyroid and to distribute thyroid lesions according to age, sex and benign and malignant behaviour.
Material and methods: The test population comprised of patients with thyroid pathology, between July 2014 to August 2016, evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
Results: In our study, Age group of patients ranged from 6-70 years, with a mean age of 37.4 years and Male to Female ratio was 1:4.9. Among total 100 cases, 54 non-neoplastic masses and 44 neoplastic masses. Incidence rate of inflammatory lesions was 8%. The most common type of inflammatory lesion was lymphocytic thyroiditis (50% of total inflammatory lesion). Incidence rate of hyperplastic lesions was 46%. It was most common thyroid lesion in our study. Most of the cases presented at the age group of 21-60 years. The most common histopathological sub type of hyperplastic lesion was colloid goiter (58.7% of the total hyperplastic lesion). Incidence rate of benign lesion was 27%. The most common presenting age group for benign thyroid lesion was 21-50 years. Benign thyroid lesion was represented exclusively in this study by follicular adenoma only. One case of well differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential was found. Incidence rate of malignant lesions was 16%. Most of the malignant cases presented at the age group of 21-40 years. The most common histopathological sub type of thyroid malignancy was papillary thyroid carcinoma (81.3% of the total malignant lesion). Five cases were analyzed immunohistochemically, wherever light microscopy was inconclusive.
Conclusion: Neoplastic and non-neonlastic disorders affect thyroid gland. Non-neoplastic disorders outnumber the neoplastic disorders. Most common non-neoplastic lesion was colloid goiter. The most common benign tumor was Follicular adenoma and the most common malignant tumor was papillary carcinoma.
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