A clinico-hematological study of 95 cases of pancytopenia in a tertiary care hospital in India
Objectives: Pancytopenia is defined as the simultaneous existence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is not an uncommon clinico-hematological entity and such cases are encountered in our day-to-day clinical practice. Knowing the underlying pathology and determining its severity are the key to its appropriate management. The aim of this study was to obtain detailed clinical and hematological spectrum of the common pathological conditions producing pancytopenia and to determine the frequency of the various etiological factors.
Material and methods: It was a prospective study and 95pancytopenic patients were evaluated clinically along with haematological parameters in Central Laboratory, Department of pathology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur from a period of September 2015 to September 2017.
Results: A total of 95 patients were evaluated and the etiological factors were as follows: Megaloblastic anemia (71.6%), aplastic anemia (6.3%), hypersplenism (4.2%), connective tissue disorders (3%), infections (3%), subleukemic leukemia (3%), malaria (1%), multiple myeloma (1%), dengue (1%) and myelodysplastic syndrome (1%).
Conclusion: The present study on pancytopenia concludes that detailed hematological investigations and relevant hematological assays provide invaluable information in the evaluation of pancytopenic patients which further helps in systematic planning of the management of the case. In our study the most common cause of pancytopeniain India is megaloblastic anemia, seen in 71.5% of the cases. Thus, a large proportion of pancytopenia cases are treatable and the etiology causing them is reversible.
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