Study of Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Term Oligohydramnios
Background: Oligohydramnios is defined as when the maximum vertical pockets of liquor is less than 2 cm or when amniotic fluid index (AFI) is less than 5 cm or less than 10th centile. It is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the maternal and fetal outcome in AFI of 5 cm or less (oligohydramnios) in term pregnancies.
Method: In this prospective study total 100 cases with oligohydramnios (< or = 5cm) diagnosed by ultrasound after 37 weeks of gestation were enrolled and studied for maternal and fetal outcome after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Results: Mean maternal age was 25.48 years. Incidence of oligohydramnios was more (53%) in primigravida. Non stress test (NST) was reactive in 59% and nonreactive in 41% cases. 43% patients delivered vaginally, 4% delivered instrumentally and 53% by caesarean section with most common indication being fetal distress (52.83%). The occurrence of meconium stained amniotic fluid was 30%. Incidence of Low birth weight was 68% and incidence of abnormal doppler changes was found in 25% of cases. 41% of newborns were admitted in neonatal ward (NICU) with tachypnoea was commonest indication followed by baby not cried immediately after birth and meconium aspiration. There were no neonatal or maternal deaths observed in the study.
Conclusion: Oligohydramnios is associated with adverse perinatal outcome and increased maternal morbidity in terms of operative interference. Thus, proper antepartum surveillance and timely intervention is needed for better results.
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