Major risk factors responsible for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis in general population of Karachi, Pakistan

  • Rabya Munawar
  • Qurratul ain Leghari Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University Clifton Karachi 75600, Pakistan.
  • Saira Shahnaz, Dr Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University Clifton Karachi 75600, Pakistan.
  • Hammad Ahmed, Dr Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University Clifton Karachi 75600, Pakistan.
Keywords: Academic Self-concept, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Academic Performance, Self-esteem, Psycho-educational Programmes


Background: Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is the most common bone disorder, however, the cause of both OA and OP are unknown. It has thought that the inherent and environmental factors such as metabolic or endocrine issues, genetic variation, various types of injury and trauma are the most common causes to be involved in both the abnormalities. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the major risk factors responsible for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. Method : A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Karachi for the period of 13 months starting from March 2015 to April 2016. Total numbers of 123 respondents were selected and were divided into four groups based on age i.e. 18-25 years, 25-40 years, 40-50 years and over 50 years. The data that were collected including gender, alcohol intake, smoking status, dietary intake, post-menopausal stateandhormonal replacement. Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS Version 20.0. Results: Out of 123 individuals participated in this study calcium intake among the respondents were highest in the age group of 18-25 years (95%). The rate of smoking was much higher in the age group 25-40 years (33.33%). Alcohol intake was found to be greater in the age group 40-50 years (20%). Arthritis was most common in the age group of 40-50 years (13.33%) whereas, the ratio of other diseases that can cause bone fragility was (48.38%) among the 50 above respondents. Conclusion: The risk of developing osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is more among the individuals belonging to age group 50 years or above due to more frequent symptoms of low calcium in diet and presence of medical conditions related to the development of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.


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Author Biographies

Rabya Munawar

Faculty of Pharmacy, Dow University of Medical and Health Sciences Karachi 74200, Pakistan

Hammad Ahmed, Dr, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University Clifton Karachi 75600, Pakistan.

Assistant Professor

Department of Pharmacology,

Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ziauddin University



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How to Cite
Munawar, R., Leghari, Q. ain, Shahnaz, S., & Ahmed, H. (2018). Major risk factors responsible for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis in general population of Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research, 9(11), 362-366.
Original Research Articles