A study to assess placental location by ultrasonography and evaluation of its relationship with development of preeclampsia & eclampsia
Objective: To compare the incidence of hypertensive disorders in case of central placenta and laterally situated placenta.
Material & method: It was a prospective observational study which was conducted between June 2016 and June 2017 at Burdwan Medical College, West Bengal. Participants were uncomplicated pregnant women having 18-24weeks gestation attending antenatal clinics and admitted in ward who underwent obstetric sonography including placental localization. Women were observed till delivery. Analysis was done for site of implantation of placenta and its correlation with preeclampsia.
Results: Total of 300 women considered for the study, 195/300 (65%) had central implantation of placenta and 105/300(35%) had lateral type of placentation. 42 patients developed preeclampsia of which 25/105(23.81%) had lateral placenta and 17/195(8.72%) had central placenta (p value 0.000). 22 women developed eclampsia of which 14/105(13.33) had lateral and 8/195(4.1) had central placentation (p value 0.003). Isolated PIH was not found in this study. This suggests high possibilities of development of preeclampsia in laterally situated placenta in comparison to central implantation.
Conclusion: Laterally located placenta is associated with increased risk of development of preeclampsia. Prediction of preeclampsia by second trimester USG guided placental localization is simple, cheap, non-invasive, safe and effective screening method for preeclampsia.
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