In vitro Anti-drepanocytary (anti-sickle cell anemia) and Membrane Stability Potential of Mishenland Polyherbal Extract on Sickle Red Blood Cells
Background: Drepanocytosis (sickle cell anaemia) is a genetic disorder that causes stiff, rod-like sickle-shaped haemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) and consequently poses serious health complications. We investigated in vitro anti-sickling potential of a novel polyherbal formula (MPF).
Methods: Sickling of RBCs induced with 2%sodium metabisulphite (MBS) was followed by treatment with MPF mixtures in different saline concentrations (7mg/ml, 9mg/ml, 14mg/ml and 28mg/ml). The red cell morphology was examined microscopically. Percentage sickling was quantified 30-minute interval at 370C for 2-hours. Effect of the MPF on membrane stability of RBCs was analyzed using osmotic fragility testing.
Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of some secondary metabolites namely; alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponin, tannin and terpenoids. Sickling of RBCs induced by MBS was inhibited by MPF. This antisickling effect was directly proportional to concentration of the MPF, dose-dependently. There was significant difference (P<0.05) between MPF-treated and untreated sickle cell counts. Osmotic fragility curves obtained from MPF-treated RBCs showed leftward shift against the untreated control indicative of increased membrane stabilization and/or haemolytic resistance.
Conclusion: MPF demonstrated significant anti-sickling and erythrocyte membrane stability properties. These effects under hypoxia signify a promising effect of the bioactive components as probable drug candidates against sickling of red cells.
Yembeau NL, Biapa PCN, Chetcha B, Nguelewou FL, Kengne CF, Nkwikeu PJN, Telefo PB, Pieme CA. Invest. Med. Chem. and Pharmacol. 2018; 1: 6.
"What Is Sickle Cell Disease?” National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 2015. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/2012/sickle-cell-disease-research-care.
Hebbel RP and Vercellotti GM. Pathobiology of Sickle Cell Disease. In: Hoffman R, editor. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, 7th ed. Elsevier BV; 2018; 571-573.
Darrow MC, Zhang Y, Cinquin BP, Smith EA, Boudreau R, Rochat RH, et al. Visualizing red blood cell sickling and the effects of inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1 using soft X-ray tomography. J. Cell Sci. 2016; 129: 3511-3517. doi:10.1242/jcs.189225.
Smith, Y. 2015. Sickle-Cell Disease Pathophysiology. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Sickle-Cell-Disease-Pathophysiology.aspx.
Galadanci N, Wudil BJ, Balogun TM, Ogunrinde GO, Akinsulie A, Hasan-Hanga F, et al. Current sickle cell disease management practices in Nigeria. Int. Health. 2014; 6: 23–28. doi:
World facts. Highest numbers of sickle cell births by country. 2017. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/countries-with-the-highest-number-of-sickle-cell-births-per-year.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global Health Nigeria: Sickle Cell Disease. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/nigeria/what/scd.htm.
Nurain IO, Bewaji CO, Johnson JS, Davenport RD, Zhang Y. Potential of Three Ethnomedicinal Plants as Antisickling Agents. Mol. Pharm. 2017; 14: 172-182. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut. 6b00767.
Gupta A, Sharma S, Verma HK, Tyagi DS, Mishra PK, Patra P K. Phytochemical characterization of twelve medicinal plants used for sickle cell disease management in Chhattisgarh. Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci. 2015; 6: 1062 -1070.
Egunyomi A, Moody JO, Eletu OM. Antisickling activities of two ethnomedicinal plant recipes used for the management of sickle cell anaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009; 8: 020-025.
Adejumo OE, Kolapo AL, Roleola OP, Kasim LS. In vitro antisickling activities and phytochemical evaluation of Plumbago zeylanica and U. uvaria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2010; 9: 9032-9036.
Ameh SJ, Tarfa FD, Ebeshi BU. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria. Anemia. 2012; 2012: 607436. doi:10.1155/2012/607436.
Anonymous. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. World Health Organisation. Geneva: 1998; 25-28.
He J, Lin J, Hong-Zhang J, Sun XM, Zeng CM. Dual effects of ginkgo balboa leaf extract on human red blood cells. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. 2008; 104: 138–144. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00354.x.
Harborne JB. In: Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London: 1973; 49-188.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy 15th ed. Saunders: 2002; 214-393.
Huntsman RG. Sickling Tests - Microscopic and Nonmicroscopic, CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 1974; 5: 45-49. doi: 10.3109/10408367409107624
Mpiana PT, Lombe BK, Ombeni AM, Ngbolua KTN, Tshibangu DST, Wimba LK, et al. In vitro sickling inhibitory effects and antisickle erythrocytes hemolysis of Dicliptera colorata CB Clarke, Euphorbia hirta L and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. OJBD. 2013; 3: 43-48.
Krogmeier DE, Mao IL, Bergen WG. Genetic and nongenetic effects of erythrocyte osmotic fragility in lactating Holstein Cows and its association with yield traits. J. Diary Sci. 1993; 76: 1994-2000.
Vaishnav R, Agrawal RD, Sandeep S. Medicinal value and future perspective of some therapeutically important plants from Indian western region. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2015; 34: 88-93.
Bianchi N, Zuccato C, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Gambari R. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A novel approach for identification of drugs for the treatment of β-Thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia. CAM. 2007; 6: 141–151.
Pauline N, Cabral BNP, Anatole PC, Jocelyne AMV, Bruno M, Jeanne NY. The in vitro antisickling and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts Zanthoxyllum heitzii on sickle cell disorder. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 2013; 13: 162. Doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-162.
Gbadamosi IT, Adeyemi SB, Adeyemi AA, Moody JO. In vitro antisickling activities of two indigenous plant recipes in Ibadan, Nigeria. Inter. J. Phytomed. 2012a; 4: 205-211.
Musa AA, Oyewale AO, Ndukwe IG, Yakubu SE, Abdullahi MS. J. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of solvent fractions of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen) root bark methanol extract Chem. Pharm. Res. 2013; 5: 28-33.
Obianime AW and Uche FI. The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves (kidney stone plant) on the hormonal parameters of male guinea pigs. JASEM. 2009; 13: 5-9.
Ajiboye AE, Ameen M, Adedayo MR. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of the fruit pulp of Dialium guineense (Velvet Tamarind) on some microbial isolates. J. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2015; 7: 33-41.
Dash BP, Archana Y, Satapathy N, Naik SK. Search for antisickling agents from plants. Pharmacogn. Rev. 2013; 7:53.
Naiho A, Okonkwor B, Okoukwu C. Anti-Sickling and Membrane Stabilizing Effects of Carica papaya Leaf Extract. Br. J. Med. Med. Res. 2015; 6: 484.
Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Biomedical Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- An author must submit Copyright form After acceptance of the article.