Antioxidant Enzyme Activities (Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Essential Hypertension
Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis of hypertension, a major cardiovascular risk factor. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are primary contributors to systemic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The impact of ROS-products released from PBMCs may contribute to endothelial dysfunction damage in hypertensive subjects. Superoxide Dismutases (SODs) and Catalase comprise first line of defence against ROS.
Aim: To analyse activities of SOD and Catalase in PBMCs of freshly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients as compared to normotensive healthy controls. Further, correlate the antioxidant enzyme activities with oxidative stress in terms of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) in both groups.
Methods: Forty-eight patients and age, BMI-matched 48 controls were recruited. Catalase and SOD activities were measured in PBMC-lysates using Enzyme-Linked-Immunosorbent-Assay (ELISA). 8-iso-PGF2α levels in serum and urine of all subjects were also measured using ELISA.
Results: Significantly lower (5.1-fold, p<0.001) Catalase activity was found in patients as compared to controls. Similar but non-significant trend (1.3-fold) was observed for SOD.8-iso-PGF2α levels were significantly higher in serum (11.3-fold, p<0.001) and urine (4.8-fold, p<0.001) of patients as compared to controls. In patients, activity of SOD showed positive correlation with that of Catalase (rs=0.383, p=0.007) and serum 8-iso-PGF2α levels (rs=0.459, p=0.001). While in controls, Catalase activity correlated negatively with 8-iso-PGF2α (rs=-0.344, p=0.017).
Conclusion: This study reports significantly increased oxidative stress in hypertensive patients accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities of Catalase and SOD in their PBMCs. A direct correlation between SOD activity and oxidative stress suggests its defensive position while Catalase seems to adopt a submissive role in defence system in case of essential hypertension.
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