Gut is a special sense organ similar to other special senses

  • Syed Tousif Ahmad Rizvi Senior Resident, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002
  • Mohd Aslam Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002
  • Sangeeta Singhal Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002
  • M Mobarak Hossain Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical college, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002
Keywords: Brain, ENS, Special sense, NPY, Ghrelin

Abstract

Gastrointestinal tract(GIT) and Central Nervous system(CNS) are governed by neural regulation(Long and short neural reflexes in GI tract),which is surprisingly complex. In GI tract, the functions of gut are entirely mediated by Enteric nervous system(ENS).But some of the GI functions are highly dependent on extrinsic system(Autonomic nervous system), so ENS communicate on both sides i.e. CNS and gut functions. When a meal is in the different regions of the GI tract, sensory mechanism detect the presence of nutrients, mount physiological or pathological responses(undigested) responses in that region of the tract as well as in more distal region of the gut. These rsponses are mediated by neural and endocrine pathways. The neural pathway is more important because any pathological disturbances in the gut are sensed by the brain immediately and control gut functions according to the physiological response. The swallowing mechanism, gastric emptying and pancreatic secreation, all these gut functions are directly controlled by the brain, without it gut physiology is not maintained. There is considerable cross talk between gut and brain due to some hormones like(CCK, SST etc.) that are present in both part of brain and gut. The regulation of food intake is governed by hormones like Neuropeptides Y(NPY) and Ghrelin which are functional part of both the hypothalamus and the gut. The mechanism of gut is also influenced by emotions and thoughts. So the ENS is the little brain influencing the brain. The availability of functional brain imaging technique has opened up a new exciting concept and allowed to study the role of the CNS to control human gut function in health and disease. The aim of this article is to acquaint this statement by that œthe gut is a Special sense organ , not just organ.

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Author Biographies

Mohd Aslam, Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002

My research interest is in neurosciences, teaching interest is in hematology, nerve muscle 
physiology and higher functions of brain. I have taught almost all the systems of physiology 
to my students. I am connected with teachings of students of various medical courses like 
degree courses ; MBBS, MD, BDS, Diploma courses ; dialysis technique, physiotherapy, OT 
management, surgical endoscopic technique and anesthesia. My article is published in 
Journal of Neurochemistry Vol 63 Supplement-2:1994 (International Journal)

Sangeeta Singhal, Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002

Completed MBBS from PMC, Ranchi University with Ist Division in all professional exams. Done MD (Physiology), JNMC, AMU and passed in Ist attempt in Jan 1993. Attended and presented papers at national and International conferences and also chaired session at various conferences. Delivered guests lectures at national workshops. Examiner in many universities. Was joint organizing secretary in conferences. Member of Medical education unit , JNMC, AMU.

M Mobarak Hossain, Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical college, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002

Research interest: 
(1) Study of Depressive and Autonomic disorders. 
(2) Study of oxidative stress in some brain disorders. 
(3) Study of NCV, Evoke potential & certain biochemical parametes. 
(4) Study of Cardiorespiartory functions & EMG in sports person. 
Teaching Interest: 
(1) Endocrine system 
(2) Cardiorespiratory system 
(3) Nervous System 
Journals of repute: 
(1) Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 
(2) Asian Journal Ophthalamol 
(3) Journal of Sports and Sports Sciences 

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Published
2019-02-14
How to Cite
1.
Rizvi S, Aslam M, Singhal S, Hossain M. Gut is a special sense organ similar to other special senses. IJBR [Internet]. 14Feb.2019 [cited 24Mar.2019];10(2):e5079. Available from: https://ssjournals.com/index.php/ijbr/article/view/5079
Section
Review Article