Pediatric autopsy, Unnatural childhood deaths, Cause of death, Manner of death
Introduction: Pain Tolerance is that greater level of stimulus at which the subject request stimulus cessation. Various factors responsible for variation in pain tolerance are-Method of experimental pain induction, age, gender, race, and exercise, Different levels of anxiety, depression, or previous painful experiences of each subject can alter the reports of pain. The common ways to induce experimental pain in pain tolerance and threshold assessment studies are pressure, thermal, electrical, laser, cold induced pain. We in present study have use pain induced by pressure. Note that pain in these experimental study designs refers to the somatosensory aspect of pain.
Aim: To compare pain tolerance in different age group in community dwelling normal healthy adults.
Method: 90 asymptomatic community dwelling normal healthy adults were tested. Pressure algometer was used to measure pain tolerance. Algometer was placed on dorsal surface of middle segment of distal phalanges of middle finger. Initial reading of algometer should be 0 lbs. Pressure should be progressively increased until maximum pain which subject can experienced is reached. Subject should be instructed to announce stop verbally at that point and experimenter immediately retracts the algometer. Three readings were taken best of three was selected.
Conclusion: For experimental induced pain by pressure- In community dwelling normal healthy adults pain tolerance decreases with an increase in age with maximum tolerance in age group ranging from 15-24 (young adult) and minimum in 45-64(old adult) and is not affected by sex of adult
Seyyed-Ehsan Parhizgar, Hamed Ekhtiari.A Review on Experimental Assessments of Pain Threshold in Healthy Human Subjects. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. Summer 2010; 1(4):61-66.
Marília Soares Leonel de Nazaré, José Adolfo Menezes Garcia Silva, Marcelo Tavella Navega, Flávia Roberta Fagnello-Navega Comparison of pain threshold and duration of pain perception in men and women of different ages. Fisioter Mov.2010 Jan/mar; 27(1):77-84.
Kenneth M. Woodrow, Gary D, Friedman, A.B. Siegelaub and Morris F. Collen Pain Tolerance: Differences according to Age, Sex and Race. Psychosom Med 1972 Nov-Dec; 34(6):548-56.
Lautenbacher S, Kunz m, Strate P, Nielsen J, Arendt-Nielsen L. Age effects on pain thresholds, temporal summation and spatial summation of heat and pressure pain. Pain.2005 Jun; 115(3):410-8.
Laura D. Wander, Cindy D. Scipio, Adam T. Hirsh, Calia A. Torres, and Michael E. Robinson, The perception of pain in others; how gender, race and age influence pain expectation. J Pain. 2012 Mar; 13(3):220-7.
Reddy K Sunil Kumar, Naidu M.U.R, P. Usha Rani and T. Ramesh Kumar Rao. Human experimental pain models: A review of standardized methods in drug development. Journal of Research in Medical Science; 17(6): 587-596.
Linda S Chesterton et al. Reliability of algometer in measuring pressure pain threshold in healthy humans, using multiple raters. Clinical Journal of Pain. Nov 2007; 23(9):760-6.
Cathart S, Printchard D et al. Reliability of pain threshold measurement in young adults. The Internet Journal of Pain, Symptom control and palliative care; 2004; 4(1): 21-26.
Provisional Guidelines on standard international age classification. Department of international economic and social affairs statistical paper New York.1982 series M no 74
Petrini L, Matthiesen ST, Arendt-Nielsen L. The effect of age and gender on pressure pain thresholds and suprathreshold stimuli. SAGE Journal; 44(5): 587-596.
Robert P. Yezierski. The effect of age on pain sensitivity: Pre-Clinical studies. Pain Medicine 2012; 13(suppl 2): 527-36.
Tarnia Taverner. The evidence on perception of pain in older people. Nursing Times; 101(36): 36-8.
Alan D. Kaye, Amir Baluch, Jared T.Scott Pain Management in the Elderly Population: A Review. Ochsner J. 2010 Fall; 10(3):457-78.
Fillingim RB, King CD, Ribeiro-Dasilva MC, Rahim-Williams B, Riley JL. Sex, Gender, and Pain: A Review of Recent Clinical and Experimental Findings. J Pain 2009 May; 10(5):447-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.001.
Keela A. Heer and Linda Garand. Assessment and measurement of pain in older adults. Clin Geriatric Med 2001 Aug; 17(3): 457-78.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Biomedical Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- An author must submit Copyright form After acceptance of the article.