Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder, diagnosed by observed behavior and patient reported experiences. Antipsychotic medication mainly works by suppressing dopamine activity. Neuroleptics are also called as antipsychotic drugs. There is a increased risk of extrapyramidal side effects with typical antipsychotics. Atypical antipsychotics refers to newer antipsychotics that confer to less risk of extrapyramidal side effects. Along with these neuroleptic treatment other adjuvant treatments like Insulin shock, Electroconvulsive, Oestrogen therapies are also used for Schizophrenia. Insulin is a hormone that maintain blood sugar level. Repeated injections with large doses of insulin causes daily comas over several weeks during which the patient lost psychotic thoughts. In electroconvulsive therapy controlled electric currents pass through the brain, altering brain chemistry and reducing depression and schizophrenic symptoms. Repeated applications of electric current alter the neurotransmitter level in central nervous system. In oestrogen therapy epidemiological, clinical and animal studies exploring the protective effect of oestrogen against schizophrenic symptoms.Psychoprotective action of oestrogen appears to be mediated by central dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms.
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