Antiplasmodial activity, Sybr Green assay, acute oral toxicity, field isolates, reference strain
Background: Malaria is one of the most important diseases in Republic of Congo with 47.9% of outpatients visit for 64.8% admissions. The rise of antimalarial resistant strains requires the active search of new active compounds and medicinal plants can be an alternative. From an ethnobotanical survey a list of plants with antimalarial reputations was drawn up, including Rauvolfia vomitoria.
Aim: The objective of this study is to see if we can validate the supposed activity of Rauvolfia vomitoria and its toxicity.
Material and Methods: Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves have been collected, dried and sprayed. Leaves powder were macerated in distilled water for 24 hours. Another part of leaves powder were macerated for 24 hours successively in hexane, dichloromethane, mix of diclhoromethane: methanol (v:v) and methanol. The crude extracts were prepared and tested for antiplasmodial activity on NF54 strains and field isolates with the SYBR Green I-based in vitro assay technique. The extracts with the best antiplasmodial activities were used on rats for acute toxicity.
Results: All Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves extracts have shown a very good antiplasmodial activity (0.63 CI50 20.19 µg/ml) and no toxicity up to 2000mg/kg.
Conclusion: Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves have an antiplasmodial activity. This study confirms the use of the plant by the traditional healers. We will pursue the work to find the active compounds of the plant.
Organisation Mondiale de la Sante. Strategie de lOMS pour la medecine traditionnelle pour 2014-2023. 2013: PP 15-16.
Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme. Plan strategique national de lutte contre le paludisme 2014-2018. 2014: PP 8.
Koukouikila Koussounda F and Ntoumi F. Malaria epidemiological research in the Republic of Congo. Malaria Journal 2016; 15: 598. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1617-7.
World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2016. 2016: pp.2.
Von Seidlein L, Bejon P. Malaria vaccines: past, present and future. Arch Dis Child 2013; 98:981-985.
Hoffman SL, Vekemans J, Richie TL, Duffy PE. The march toward malaria vaccines. Vaccine 2015; 33: D13-D23.
Mbengue A, Bhattacharjee S, Pandharkar T, Liu H, Estiu G, Stahelin RV, Rizk S, Njimoh DL, Ryan Y, Chotivanich K, Nguon C, Ghorbal M, Lopez-Rubio J-J, Pfrender M, Emrich S, Mohandas N, Dondorp AM, Wiest O and Haldar KA. Molecular mechanism of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 2015; 520(7549): 683-687. Doi: 10.1038/nature14412.
Hanboonkunupakarn B, White NJ. The threat of artemisinin resistant malaria in Southeast Asia. Travel Med Infect Dis 2016; 14(6): 548-550.
Bhatia R, Rastogi RM, Ortega L. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia. J Vector Borne Dis. 2013; 50(4): 239-47.
Nsonde-Ntandou GF, Ndounga M, Ouamba J-M, Gbeassor M, Etou-Ossebi A, Ntoumi F, Abena A.A. Enqu ethnobotanique: screening chimique et efficacite therapeutique de quelques plantes utilisees contre le Paludisme en medecine traditionnelle a Brazzaville. Phytotherapie 2005; 1: 13-18.
Mbatchi SF, Mbatchi B, Banzouzi JT, Bansimba T, Nsonde Ntandou GF, Ouamba J-M, Berry A, Benoit-Vical F. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of 18 plants used in Congo Brazzaville traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 104(1-2): 168-74.
Rieckmann KH, Sax LJ, Campbell GH and Mrema JE. Drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum: an in vitro microtechnique. Lancet 1978; 1: 22-23.
World Health Organization. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. Third edition. Chap 2. Clinical Malaria and Epidemiology. 2015; pp.24.
Trager W and Jensen JB. Cultivation of erythrocytic stages. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1977; 55 (2-3): 363-365.
Jensen JB and Trager W. Plasmodium falciparum in culture: use of outdated erythrocytes and description of the candle jar method. J Parasitol. 1977; 63, 883-886.za.
Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network. In vitro Module. P.falciparum drug sensitivity assay using SYBRÂ® Green I Assay Technique WWARN Procedure. 2011.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD. Guideline for testing of chemicals – Acute Oral Toxicity â€“ Acute Toxic Class. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2001.
Le Nagard H, Vincent C, Mentre F, Le Bras J. Online analysis of in vitro resistance to antimalarial drugs through nonlinear regression. Comput Methods Programs Biomed, Epub 2010.
Djaman JA, Yapi A, Dje MK, Diarra JN, Guede-Guina F. Sensibilite in vitro a la chloroquine de plasmodium falciparum a Abidjan. Medecine Afrique Noire 2001; 48 (8/9).
Adebayo JO, Krettli AU. Potential antimalarials from Nigerian plants: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011; 133: 289-302.
Campbell-Tofte JIA., Molgaard P, Josefsen K, Abdallah Z, Hansen SH, Cornett C, Mu H, Richter EA, Petersen HW, NÃ¸rregaard JC, Winther K. Randomized and double-blinded pilot clinical study of the safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of the Rauvolfia-Citrus tea, as used in Nigerian Traditional Medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011; 133:402-411.
Graham JG, Quinn ML, Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. Plants used against cancer an extension of the work of Jonathan Hartwell. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000; 73: 347â€“377.
Quiroz D, Sosef M, Andel VT. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2016; 188:48-56.
Zirihi GN, Mambu L, Guede-Guina F, Bodo B, Grellier P. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of 33 West African plants used for treatment of malaria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 98(3): 281-5.
Eluwa MA, Udoaffah MT, Vulley MBG, Ekanem TB, Akpantah AO, Asuquo OA, Ekong MB. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on the fetal heart. North Am J Med Sci 2010; 2: 592-595.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Pharmacological Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Author must Submit Copyright form After acceptance of Article